THE SETTLER HANDBOOK by MD Nash
THE SETTLER PARTIES
No. 40 on the Colonial Department list, led by Hezekiah Sephton, a carpenter of 1 Bedford Court, New North Street, Red Lion Square, London. This was a joint-stock party consisting mainly of small tradesmen, its members united by a common religious faith.
The party's original leader was Edward Wynne of Lincoln's Inn Field, London, a smith by trade and an active member of the Great Queen Street Wesleyan Methodist Chapel. In July 1819, a week after the announcement of the emigration scheme, he submitted an application on behalf of 10 families of the Great Queen Street congregation. He hoped eventually to increase the number to 100, so that the party would be entitled to nominate a clergyman to accompany it, whose salary would be paid by government.
By September, Wynne had enrolled 96 dissenter families wishing to emigrate, some of them from farther afield than Great Queen Street - Samuel Bonnin, for instance, applied to join them from Shillington in Bedfordshire. They formed themselves into the United Wesleyan Methodist Society, with a committee responsible for the organisation of the party. The selection of the clergyman was put in the hands of the committee of the General Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, whose choice fell on the Rev William Shaw.
In October the death of Wynne's wife led him to withdraw altogether from the emigration scheme, and he nominated Thomas Colling, a builder of Wapping, to replace him as head of the party. Before joining Wynne, Colling had applied without success to take out a small party of his own. Colling did not last long as leader, however; in November he stood down and was succeeded by Hezekiah Sephton. Although three of Colling's adult sons emigrated with a division of the party, Colling himself, with his wife and younger children, delayed his departure for another month and sailed for the Cape in the last of the settler transports, the Sir George Osborn.
Deposits were paid for 101 men and their families, and the party embarked at Deptford in two divisions, the larger one of 66 families in the Aurora under Hezekiah Sephton, and the remaining 35 families in the Brilliant under Richard Gush. They sailed from Gravesend on 15 February 1820. Each division was accompanied by a surgeon: Dr Peter Campbell (officially a member of Bailie's party) in the Aurora, and Dr Charles Caldecott, who had applied unsuccessfully to take out a small party of his own before Sephton's, in the Brilliant. Two emigrants died on board the Aurora before she sailed: Elizabeth Croft, the wife of Charles Croft, and Joseph Goode, whose berth and that of his son (who stayed in England) were taken by George Clarke, formerly of Willson's party, and by Thomas Isted. The Rev William Shaw's Journal records that Elizabeth Jones, the 21-year-old wife of John Jones, died at sea, and 'several children were born and some died'.
Seven deaths were recorded among the party on board the Brilliant: Joseph, the infant son of Richard Gush; Sarah, wife of William Shepherd, and their daughter Mary Ann aged 3 and infant son William, all from consumption; Frances, wife of George Brown, and her newborn child; and George Bray, a 39-year-old coachmaker, who died while the ship lay at anchor in Algoa Bay. Mrs Bray and her children did not disembark but returned in the Brilliant to Simons Town. The surgeon of the party, Dr Charles Caldecott, died at Algoa Bay soon after landing. Besides Mrs Brown's ill-fated infant, four children were born at sea: Joseph Webb, James Temlett, WB Jenkinson and Frances Maria Searle.
The Brilliant anchored in Simon's Bay on 30 April 1820, and the Aurora a day later. Both ships reached Algoa Bay on 15 May. The two sections of the party were reunited on disembarking at Algoa Bay, and located at Rietfontein, but orders were soon received for their removal to a new location on the Assegai Bush River, as the first site had been earmarked for a party expected under the leadership of Major General Charles Campbell. The new location was named Salem, meaning 'peace'; here an attractive village arose (the only village founded by a settler party that still exists today) with a community notable among the settlers for 'the order with which its affairs were conducted, both spiritual and temporal'.
The Maynard family obtained permission to settle in Cape Town.
LIST OF SEPHTON'S DIVISION
ALDUM, Aaron 39. Weaver. w Edith Ida 32. c Jane 11, Aaron James 4, Ruth 1.
AMES, John 44. Surveyor.
BAGSHAW, Robert 27. Wireworker. w Ursula 20. c Robert William 1.
BONNIN, Samuel 40. Husbandman. w Ann 37. c Caroline Hepzibah 16, Susannah 14.
BOOTH, Benjamin 32. Baker. w Margaret 28. c Margaret 10, Sarah 7, Jane 2.
BRYANT, James 25. Sawyer. w Mary Elizabeth 23. c James 4, Thomas 2.
CAMPBELL, Peter 42. Surgeon. w Sarah 32. c Margaret Ann 2, Sarah Lucy 1.
CHANDLER, Charles 32. Farmer.
CLARK, George 36. Husbandman. w Elizabeth 31. c George 8, Frances 6, Mary Ann 4, Catherine 1.
CROFT, Charles Thomas 26. Copper plate printer. w Elizabeth 22 (died at sea). c Clarissa 2.
CYRUS, Samuel 37. Labourer. w Deborah 28. c George 9, Jemimah 6, Samuel 4, Emma.
DIXIE, Philip 30. Smith. w Elizabeth 27. c Elizabeth 5, Phoebe 1.
EDWARDS, James 24. Shoemaker. w Ann 23. c Daniel.
EVANS, John 27. Cotton spinner. w Ann 25.
FIELD, Samuel 26. Husbandman.
FOWLER, William 23. Husbandman.
HALL, David 32. Labourer. w Ann 24. c James 2.
HANCOCK, James 43. China painter. w Ann 29. c Mary Ann 7, Joseph Ebenezer 3, Thomas 1, Samuel 1.
HANCOCK, Mary 32 (sister of James Hancock).
HARRIS, Sophia 17 (sister of William Harris and servant of William Shaw).
HARRIS, William 23. Labourer.
HAZELL, William 39. Butcher. w Mary 29.
HILL, Martha 16 (servant of Peter Campbell).
HOLMES, Thomas 34. Husbandman. w Mary 34. c Mary Ann 12, Hannah 9, Margaret 5, Thomas 3.
HOWE, George 44. Master mariner. w Francis 50. c Maria 14.
HOWSE, James 23. Labourer.
JENKINS, Thomas 13 (brother-in-law of James Kidd).
JONES, John 25. Bricklayer. w Elizabeth 21 (died at sea).
KIDD, James 24. Fur skinner. w Ann 30.
LEE, William Robert 18. Labourer.
LEE, William 39. Butcher. w Ann 38. c George 13, Frederick 11, John Henry 10, Elisha 9.
MATTHEWS, William HJ 26. Labourer. w Frances 28.
MAYNARD, James Mortimer 20. Sawyer.
MAYNARD, Joseph 18. Sawyer.
MAYNARD, Levi 44. Husbandman. w Sarah 40. c Leah 15, Mary 10.
OATES, John 31. Shoemaker. w Elizabeth 35. c Mary Ann 3, Samuel 1.
PAINE, John 33. Carpenter. w Sarah 29. c Mary 5.
PAINTER, Samuel Richard 37. Gardener. w Harriet 34. c Richard Joseph 13, Frederick Thomas 6, Mary 5, Harriet.
PATRICK, Benjamin 42. Husbandman. c Martha 13, Job 10, Sarah 8, Samuel 6.
PENNY, Charles 33. Bricklayer. w Susannah 25. c Elizabeth 11, Charles 7, Edward 1.
PENNY, William 30. Bricklayer. w Rosanna 30. c Sarah 9, William 7.
PITT, Robert 43. Husbandman. w Lucy 39. c Robert 8.
PRATTEN, William John 34. Bricklayer.
PRIOR, Richard 44. Glazier. w Sarah 42.
PRYNN, William 40. Husbandman. w Jane 35. Sarah Clark 10, William Edward 8, Elizabeth 6, Jane Mary 2.
RAWLINS, James 17 and Robert 15 (in the care of William Sargeant).
REES, William 47. Miner and naval pensioner. w Ann 41.
ROBERTS, Daniel 37. Shoemaker. w Harriet 33. c Mary Ann 15, Daniel 13, Samuel 8.
ROBINSON, Thomas 38. Umbrella maker. w Mary Ann 38. c Mary Ann 15, Thomas George 13, William 10,
Charles 7, Samuel Joseph 3, James Edmond.
RUDMAN, Benjamin 27. Husbandman.
RUDMAN, Samuel 29. Husbandman. w Ann 19.
SARGEANT, William 32. Baker. w Mary 37. c Benjamin 8, Hester 4, Mary 3.
SEPHTON, Hezekiah 43. Carpenter. w Jane 43. c Hezekiah 12, Jane 11, William.
SEPHTON, Thomas 18. Carpenter.
SHAW, William 21. Minister. w Ann 31. c Mary Ann.
SHORT, Joseph 33. Gardener. w Mary 30. c John 7, Mary 5, Penelope 3, Frederick William.
SLATER, Charles 21. Butcher.
SLATER, Thomas 43. Cotton dealer. w Sophia 42. c Hannah 17, Elizabeth 13, George 12, Henry 9, Edward 7,
SMITH, Richard 46. Carpenter. w Mary 48. c Owen 12.
SPARKS, Henry 30. Carpenter. w Mary 38. c Henry 5, Francis 2.
TALBOT, John 18. Labourer.
TALBOT, Priscilla 45 (wife of John Talbot snr). c Charles 13, Amelia 9, Henry 7, Maria 5, Sophia 2.
TROTTER, William 33. Husbandman. w Ann 34. c Ann 7.
TURPIN, Joseph 29. Schoolmaster. w Mercy 19.
UPCOTT, Samuel 36. Wool comber. w Mary 36. c Jane 13.
WALLIS, Thomas 43. Farmer. w Sarah 43. c Mary 12, Henry 10, Charles 4.
WATSON, Charles 13 (brother of William Watson).
WATSON, William 19. Labourer. w Mary 23.
WELLS, Elizabeth 18 (daughter of Thomas Wells).
WELLS, Thomas 43. Grazier. w Sarah 42. c George 17.
WILMOT, George 13 (brother of Joseph Wilmot).
WILMOT, Joseph 30. Glass cutter. w Ann 24.
WITHERIDGE, James 39. Bricklayer. c Benetta Sarah 13.
WOOD, Charles 30. Carpenter. w Ann 23. c Thomas Frederick 3.
WOOD, George 14 (apprenticed to Richard Smith).
YOUNGS, Thomas 45. Shoemaker. w Ann 38.
LIST OF GUSH'S DIVISION
BRAY, George 39. Coachmaker (died at sea). w Ann 45. c Fanny 13, Ann 11, Sarah 6.
BRAY, Mary 18 (daughter of George Bray).
BROWN, George 34. Gardener. w Frances 34 (died at sea). c Mary Ann 12,
Luke 6, an infant born and died at sea.
CALDECOTT, Charles 39. Surgeon. w Mary 41. c Alphonso 17, Christina 11, Timothy 9, Mary 8, Charles 6, Frederick 4.
COLLING, John 25. Boatbuilder.
COLLING, Thomas 20. Brush maker.
COLLING, William 18. Wharfinger.
FILMER, John 49. Sawyer. w Mary 29. c John 11, Harriet 7, Ebenezer 5, Mary 3, Elizabeth.
FILMER, Thomas 47. Sawyer. w Elizabeth 67.
GRAVETT, George l8. Labourer.
GRAVETT, William 16 (in care of R Pickstock).
GUSH, Richard 30. Carpenter. w Margaret 29. c Margaret Hannah 6, Thomas 2, Joseph (died at sea).
HODGES, George 32. Saddler. w Mary 30.
HODGES, Samuel 32. Husbandman.
HOGSFLESH, James 37. Coachmaker. w Margaret 21.
HOOD, Thomas Samuel 20. Fruiterer.
ISTED, Thomas 40. Cotton dealer. w Susan 28. c Sarah 4, Thomas 2.
JENKINSON, George 31. Chairmaker. w Sarah 31. c Hannah 11, Charles 5, Alfred 3, John 1, a child born at sea.
JONES, Rowland. Gardener.
KING, Thomas 39. Carpenter. w Sarah 39. c Thomas 14, William 6.
MARSH, Thomas 50. Watchmaker. w Martha 50. c Sarah 16, Thomas Wadmore 15, Joseph Pickton 13,
George Dakin 11, Mary 4.
MILLER, John 29. Husbandman.
MILLER, William 40. Husbandman. w Elizabeth 42. c Elizabeth 8, Mary Ann 6, John 2.
MUIRE, William 25. Tailor. w Mary Ann 21. c William 1.
NORTON, Thomas 38. Smith and naval pensioner. w Elizabeth (Elly) 38. c Caroline Elizabeth 2.
OCHSE, Christian George 20. Furrier. w Ann 21.
PICKSTOCK, Richard 45. Tailor. w Frances 35. c Charlotte 9.
RAYNER, William 26. Hatter. w Martha 22. c Eliza.
SEARLE, Edward 28. Undertaker. w Mary 26. c Sophia Jane 3, Frances Maria (born at sea).
SHEPHERD, William 30. Packer. w Sarah 22 (died at sea). c Sarah Liberty 4, Mary Ann 3 (died at sea),
William (died at sea).
TALBOT, John 47. Master mariner. (His wife and children sailed in Sephton's division).
TEMLETT, James 22. Shepherd. w Ann 21. c James Brilliant born at sea).
TILLEY, William 27. Saddler. w Hannah 25.
URRY, James 42. Tailor. w Mary 36. c Sarah 11, Martha 9, Priscilla 8, Rhoda 6, Hannah 3.
WATKINS, John 21. Mathematical instrument maker. w Martha 20.
WATSON, Charles. Upholsterer.
WEBB, Christopher 31. Shoemaker. w Mary 20. c Christopher 2, Joseph (born at sea).
WICHMANN, Peter Matthias 40. Tailor. w Catherine 36. c Elizabeth 17.
WOODS, John 11 (in the care of William Shepherd).
*COLLING, Thomas 48. Builder. w Elizabeth 36. c Ann 16, Joseph 4, Elizabeth 3, Charlotte 1.
Main sources for party list
Agent of Transports' Returns of settlers on board the Aurora transport at Simon's Bay, and settlers in charge of Mr Richard Gush (Cape Archives 6138/2,76-81). Dr Campbell's name is included in these returns but Dr Caldecott's is omitted. (His presence in the Brilliant, his death at Algoa Bay and the refund of his deposit to his widow are confirmed in Cape Archives CO 178/122 and 1/AY 8/71.) Special Commissioner William Hayward's notes (Cape Archives CO 8543).
AE Makin, in The 1820 Settlers of Salem, lists Robert Harvey and his wife as late additions to the party, but Harvey's name is not in the Agent's Return of the party as it arrived at the Cape, and no evidence of his presence has been traced in colonial records. The name of John Talbot senior does not appear in the Agent's Returns; according to AE Makin, he quarrelled with the captain of the Aurora, the transport in which his family sailed, and he himself sailed in the Brilliant.
*Thomas Colling, a former head of Sephton's party was unable to embark in the Brilliant, but sailed in the Sir George Osborn as an independent settler attached to Gardner's party.
AE Makin, The 1820 Settlers of Salem (Wynberg, Juta, 1971). The late Mr Makin's extensive research notes are lodged in the 1820 Settlers Memorial Museum, a division of the Albany Museum, Grahamstown;
Thomas Pringle, Narrative of a Residence in South Africa (London, Moxon, 1835). Pringle's party sailed in the Brilliant, and he describes the voyage to the Cape and the arrival at Algoa Bay.
Celia Sadler, Never a Young Man: extracts from the letters and journals of the Rev. William Shaw (Cape Town, HAUM 1967).
Journal of William Shaw ed WD Hammond-Tooke (Cape Town, AA Balkema, 1972).